Biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, sugars and so on each has unique physical and chemical properties. The separation and concentration of macromolecules can be done according to their unique physical and chemical properties in aqueous dispersion. Micron sized gel particles are the most commonly used reagents for separation and concentration. Permeation chromatography is one of the most successful applications.
Through hydrophobic association and electrostatic interaction, submicron polymer microspheres can also be used to purify protein. By covalent binding affinity ligand with microspheres and packed in the column, protein can be purified when the mixture pass through the colum due to affinity.
Nowadays, magnetic nanoparticle is the most typically used method to separate target isolate. In the magnetic field, the target can easily be separated.